Numerical modeling of borehole breakouts formation in various stress fields using a Higher-Order Displacement Discontinuity Method (HODDM)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی


1 School of Mining Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Faculty of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Yazd University, Yazd, Iran


Borehole breakouts can be modelled by the propagation of cracks in the vicinity of wellbores. Coalescence of these cracks with a series of formed sub-parallel cracks leads to a breakout. Using fracture mechanics principles, the propagation of cracks in the vicinity of wellbores resulting in the final formation of breakouts is investigated. An indirect BEM with higher order elements has been used to numerically simulate cracks propagation. Various configurations of cracks placement around a wellbore are analyzed. Numerical results showed that the ratio of stresses normal to wellbores’ axis has a significant effect on breakouts final shape. For a given lower normal stress, higher stress ratios lead to wider breakouts, eventually leading to wellbore instability. Furthermore, for a given higher normal stress, higher stress ratios tend to form deeper breakouts with a limited width increase. Hydrostatic stress field can be completely stable or unstable depending on a threshold stress value.


Abdollahipour, A., 2015. Crack propagation mechanism in hydraulic fracturing procedure in oil reservoirs. University of Yazd.
Abdollahipour, A, Fatehi Marji, M., Yarahmadi Bafghi, A., Gholamnejad, J., 2016. A complete formulation of an indirect boundary element method for poroelastic rocks. Computers and Geotechnics 74, 15– 25.
Abdollahipour, A., Fatehi Marji, M., Yarahmadi-Bafghi, A., Gholamnejad, J., Yarahmadi Bafghi, A., Gholamnejad, J., 2015. Simulating the propagation of hydraulic fractures from a circular wellbore using the Displacement Discontinuity Method. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences 80, 281–291.
Abdollahipour, A., Fatehi Marji, M., Yarahmadi-Bafghi, A.R., 2013. A fracture mechanics concept of in-situ stress measurement by hydraulic fracturing test, in: The 6th International Symposium on In-Situ Rock Stress. ISRM, Japan.
Abdollahipour, Abolfazl, Marji, M.F., Bafghi, A.Y., Gholamnejad, J., 2016. On the accuracy of higher order displacement discontinuity method (HODDM) in the solution of linear elastic fracture mechanics problems. Journal of Central South University 23, 2941–2950.
Amadei, B., Stephansson, O., 1997. Rock Stress and Its Measurement. Chapman & Hall.
Baotang, S., Ove, S., Mikael, R., 2014. Modelling rock fracturing processes.
Castillo, D.A., Zoback, M.D., 1994. Systematic variations in stress state in the Southern San Joaquin Valley: Inferences based on well-bore data and contemporary seismicity. American Association Petroleum Geologists Bulletin 78, 1257–1275.
Crouch, S.L., 1976. Solution of plane elasticity problems by the displacement discontinuity method. I. Infinite body solution. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 10, 301–343.
Erdogan, F., Sih, G.C., 1963. On the crack extension in plates under plate loading and transverse shear. J. Basic Eng. 85, 519–527.
Ewy, R., Cook, N., 1990. Deformation and failure around cylindrical openings in rock. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 27, 387–427.
Fatehi Marji, M., Hosseini Nasab, H., Kohsary, A.H., 2006. On the uses of special crack tip elements in numerical rock fracture mechanics. Int. J. Solids and Structures 43, 1669–1692.
Fatehi Marji, M., Hosseini-Nasab, H., Morshedi, A.H., 2009. Numerical modeling of the mechanism of crack propagation in rocks under TBM disc cutters. Mechanics of Materials and Structures 4, 605–627.
Gerolymatou, E., 2019a. A novel tool for simulating brittle borehole breakouts. Computers and Geotechnics 107, 80–88.
Gerolymatou, E., 2019b. A novel tool for simulating brittle borehole breakouts. Computers and Geotechnics 107, 80–88.
Gomar, M., Goodarznia, I., Shadizadeh, S.R., 2014. Transient thermo-poroelastic finite element analysis of borehole breakouts. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences 71, 418–428.
Guenot, A., 1989. Borehole breakouts and stress fields. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 26, 185–195.
Guo, H., Aziz, N.I., Schmitt, L.C., 1990. Linear elastic crack tip modeling by displacement discontinuity method. Engin. Fract. Mech. 36, 933–943.
Haimson, B.C., Lee, M.Y., 1995. Estimating In Situ stress conditions from borehole breakouts and core disking-experimental results in granite, in: International Workshop on Rock Stress Measurement at Great Depth.
Lee, M.Y., Haimson, B.C., 1993. Laboratory study of borehole breakouts in Lac du Bonnet granite: a case of extensile failure mechanism. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 30.
Li, X., Feng, Y., El Mohtar, C.S., Gray, K.E., 2019. Transient modeling of borehole breakouts: A coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical approach. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 172, 1014–1024.
Lin, H., Kang, W.H., Oh, J., Canbulat, I., Hebblewhite, B., 2020. Numerical simulation on borehole breakout and borehole size effect using discrete element method. International Journal of Mining Science and Technology 30, 623–633.
Lin, W., Yeh, E.-C., Hung, J.-H., Haimson, B., Hirono, T., 2010. Localized rotation of principal stress around faults and fractures determined from borehole breakouts in hole B of the Taiwan Chelungpu-fault Drilling Project (TCDP). Tectonophysics 482, 82–91.
Liu, H., Lin, J.S., He, J., Xie, H., 2020. A discrete element exploration of V-shaped breakout failure mechanisms in underground opening. Underground Space (China) 5, 281–291.
Mansourizadeh, M., Jamshidian, M., Bazargan, P., Mohammadzadeh, O., 2016. Wellbore stability analysis and breakout pressure prediction in vertical and deviated boreholes using failure criteria – A case study. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 145, 482–492.
Martin, C., Martino, J., Dzik, E., 1994. Comparison of borehole breakouts from laboratory and field tests, in: Proceeding on Rock Mechanics in Petroleum Engineering. Balkema, Delft/Rotterdam, pp. 183–190.
Newman, Jr.J.C., 1971. An Improved Method of Collocation for the Stress Analysis of Cracked Plates with Various Shaped Boundaries. NASA Technical Note, NASA TN D-6376.
Plumb, R.A., Cox, J.W., 1987. Stress directions in eastern North America determined to 4.5 km from borehole elongation measurements. Journal of Geophysical Research 92, 4805–4816.
RIPI, 2016. Internal report of geomechanical tests. Tehran, Iran.
Sahara, D.P., Schoenball, M., Gerolymatou, E., Kohl, T., 2017. Analysis of borehole breakout development using continuum damage mechanics. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences 97, 134–143.
Sanford, R.J., 2003. Principles of fracture mechanics. Prentice Hall, USA.
Shen, B., 2008. Borehole breakout and in situ stresses, in: SHIRMS 1. Perth, Australia, pp. 407–418.
Shen, B., Stephansson, O., Rinne, M., 2002. Simulation of borehole breakouts using FRACOD2D. Oil and Gas Science and Technology 27, 579–590.
Shou, K.J., Crouch, S.L., 1995. A higher order displacement discontinuity method for analysis of crack problems. Int. J. Rock Mech. Min. Sci. and Geomech. Abstr. 32, 49–55.
Tada, H., Paris, P.C., Irwin, G.R., 2000. The Stress Analysis of Cracks Handbook, Third. ed. ASME, New York.
Tang, Z., Kong, X., Duan, W., Gao, J., 2021. Wellbore breakout analysis and the maximum horizontal stress determination using the thermo-poroelasticity model. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 196.
Vardoulakis, J., J, S., Guenot, A., 1988. Borehole instabilities as bifurcation phenomena. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci Geomech Abstr 25, 159–170.
Wei, Y., Feng, Y., Deng, J., Li, X., 2021. Hydro-mechanical modeling of borehole breakout in naturally fractured rocks using distinct element method. Geomechanics for Energy and the Environment 100287.
Whittaker, B.N., Singh, R.N., Sun, G., 1992. Rock fracture mechanics, principles design and applications. Netherland.
Zang, A., Stephansson, O., 2010. Stress field of the earth’s crust. Springer Science + Business Media, Dordrecht/Heidelberg/London/New York.
Zhang, H., Yin, S., Aadnoy, B.S., 2018. Poroelastic modeling of borehole breakouts for in-situ stress determination by finite element method. Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering 162, 674–684.
Zoback, M.D., 2010. Reservoir geomechanics. Cambridge University Press.
Zoback, M.D., Mooss, D., Mastin, L., Anderson, R., 1985. Wellbore breakout and in situ stress. J Geophys Res 90, 5523–5530.